Several of the popular pistols of the very early 1900s were offered by factories in carbine configurations, with 10-14 inch barrels and permanent shoulder stocks (not to be confused with the detachable stock/holsters also made for many of these pistols). In particular, the Luger, Mauser 96, and Mannlicher designs were offered this way. Well, one of our readers asked if carbine versions of the Bergmann pistols were ever made, and I responded that they were not…and it turns out I was not quite correct.
Bergmann carbines were not made as commercial production items like the other guns, but it seems that at least a couple carbines were made as experimental or very custom pieces. From Milpas.cc we have a photo of one such carbine, wonderfully engraved and accepted with horn and gold inlay:
The serial number on this example is 34, and it is marked “TH Bergmann – Gaggenau”, indicating that it was manufactured at Bergmann’s own factory, presumably on the small production line he set up to make the initial 1903 Bergmann-Mars pistols before subcontracting them out to Pieper. Thetop of the bolt is marked “Karabiner Bergmann / Patent Brevete S.G.D.G.”, and – most interesting – the rear of the bolt has a fancy inlaid “TB” marking. Given the unusual and highly decorative nature of the gun, it seems very possible that this was made specifically for Bergmann himself.
Unfortunately, this appears to be the only photograph of this or any other Bergmann carbine that can be found today, and the available literature does not mention them.
We come now to the final chapter in the Bergmann pistol saga – the Danish M1910 and 1910/21 pistols. When Pieper (AEP) in Belgium contracted to build the 1908 Bergmanns for Spain, they also got the rights to build the guns under license for commercial sale. Bergmann’s own company had decided to get out of the pistol-making business and concentrate their arms production on heavy machine guns.
In addition to selling 1908 Bergmanns on the civilian market throughout Europe, Pieper managed to make a major contract sale of the guns to the Danish military in 1910. A few changes were requested to the design:
Semicircular cutouts at the bottom of the magazine well, to allow a better grip on the magazine.
Textured gripping surfaces on the magazines
Changing the flat mainspring to an “S” shaped one
Enlarged magazine catch
Slightly larger grips
Belgian-made, Danish contract Bergmann M1910. Note gripping surface on magazine, and wooden grips.
With these changes made, Denmark ordered 4,840 pistols in 1910. These guns bear two numbers, an AEP serial number in the 6,000-11,000 range located in the standard places (primarily on the front underside of the frame) and also a Danish property number from 1-4,840 stamped on the right side bridge at the read of the frame. They will also have a crown over “D” marking indication Danish acceptance and standard Belgian commercial proof marks. The Danish order was completed by 1912, and AEP continued making commercial Bergmann pistols. When World War I began and Germany occupied Belgium, they had the factory continue to produce the pistols for German use (these were in the 15,000-16,000 range of serial numbers, and did not have the Belgian proof marks). Production ended at the end of the war, but a few more guns in the 17,000 range were assembled form the remaining stock of parts.
Danish M1910/21 with original Trolit plastic grips (which were prone to cracking)
By the early 1920s, the Danish military was in need of more pistols and replacement parts for the existing ones, and was unable to get them from AEP – so they decided to produce them domestically instead. Production began in 1922, with a few more minor design changes under the designation M1910/21. These changes were a larger and stronger extractor, larger contoured grips made of Trolit (an early plastic) and replacing the sideplate catch with a screw – no significant mechanical changes. The first batch of 900 was made between 1922 and 1924, and are marked “HÆRENS TØJHUS” instead of having AEP’s name. A second batch of 1,904 pistols was made in 1924 and 25, marked “HÆRENS RUSTKAMMER”. These Danish made guns also had two different numbers; serial numbers starting at 1 and Danish issue numbers picking up at 4,840 where the Belgian guns left off.
Danish-made Bergmann M1910/21. Note larger wooden grips, used as replacements when the original Trolit grips broke (photo by Oleg Volk). The 9mm Steyr ammo is lower powered than 9mm Bergmann/9mm Largo, but will interchange.
At the same time, most of the M1910 pistol in Danish inventory were refurbished and updated to the /21 configuration.
We have some video of the M1910/21, both at the range and in the shop for disassembly. I made these videos several years ago, and the shooting video has a few factual goofs in it – eventually I will have a chance to redo these with better info and in high definition. But for now, here they are:
My overall impressions of the Bergmann pistol are a big clouded by the aesthetic crush I have on them – I think they are a pretty darn comfortable pistol to shoot. R.K. Wilson disagrees, calling them “clumsy” and “very unhandy”. I do admit that magazine changes are slow (at least on the examples I’ve handled – the mag catch is very stiff, and removing the magazine causes the bolt to slam forward) and the 6-round capacity is a handicap. Still, they served the Danish military until 1946 (when they were replaced by the FN High Power). I still don’t have one in my personal collection, but eventually that will change!
Caliber: 9x23mm Bergmann (aka 9mm Largo)
Weight: 36oz (1020g)
Overall length: 10.0 in (254mm)
Barrel Length: 4.0 in (102mm)
Magazine capacity: 6 rounds
Action: Short recoil
Locking System: Vertically-sliding block
Yep, it’s that time again – another RIA Premiere Auction is coming up on the weekend of December 6th-8th. As usual, there are thousands of firearms up for sale, including a whole bunch of 1911s, Lugers, P38s, and other classic arms. As is also usual, I’m more interested in the unusual and, dare I say, forgotten weapons that are up for grabs. So, let’s take a look at some of the highlights (which, by the way, it was tough to cull down to just these few)…
Let’s dive right into the cool with a 1939 prototype Gustloff .32ACP semiauto pistol (Lot 1392). This was a design intended to compete with the Walther PP/PPK, being made at the Buchenwald concentration camp to reduce costs. The Walther pistol was well liked, though, and with all the other wartime priorities this Gustloff design was never put into production. Mechanically, it is a simple blowback design, with a shrouded hammer. Anticipated price point: used car.
Next up, an older prototype: a Krnka 1895 (Lot 3384). The Czech designer Karel Krnka was the brain behind several innovative early repeating and self-loading pistols (we will be covering his work in more detail in the future). This particular 1895 experimental model of pistol was the grandfather of the Roth-Steyr 1907 (which Krnka designed, Roth financed, and Steyr produced). This pistol uses a locked breech (recoil-operated rotating bolt system), and has a fixed internal magazine fed by stripper clips (one of which is included in the auction). A very early gun from an underappreciated engineer! Anticipated price point: small new car.
Prototypes are great and all, I can hear you saying, but how about something a bit more recognizable, but with a unique twist? Well, how about a 1915 DWM Luger that took a piece of shrapnel for its owner (Lot 1450)? This is certainly not something to appeal to everyone – and may be a bit macabre – but it is certainly a one-of-a-kind artifact. The outside face of its holster shows a large entry hole and the shell fragment making it proceeded to slam into the backstrap of the Luger, twisting and destroying the frame. It broke into smaller pieces as a result of the impact, which left a handful of exit holes on the inside of the holster. Whether this saved the owners life or killed him, there is no way to know… Anticipated price point: One ounce of gold.
This is not as rare an item as the pistols above, but the Japanese Type 2 Paratrooper variant of the Arisaka is a very neat rifle – and there are two available in this auction (Lot 608 and Lot 1458). In order to make the weapon more convenient for use jumping out of an aircraft, the Japanese devised a system wherein the barrel and forestock of the rifle can be detached from the receiver by simply unscrewing a captive locking wedge. The system is durable, simple, safe, and quick to use. It also retains the solid stock and full-length barrel to improve practical accuracy, which many countries sacrificed for portability on paratrooper rifles. Anticipated price point: twenty-five typical Turkish Mausers.
Not rare enough for you? Well, how about a Type 1 Paratrooper (Lot 616), an experimental predecessor to the Type 2? Before they got the idea for the detachable barrel, the Japanese toyed with the idea of using a short barrel and a folding stock for a handy rifle. How do you make an easy folding stock carbine? Take a Type 38 Arisaka, saw the stock off at the wrist, and put a big ol’ hinge on it! Yes, this did result in a lot of wobbly and cracked stocks, and I’m sure the Imperial paratroopers were much happier with the Type 2. Still, this Type 1 is in outstanding condition for what it is, and an exceedingly rare find. Anticipated price point: registered MAC-10 (this seems low to me).
For something more high-tech, how about a pair of Remington Etronx bolt action rifles (Lot 905)? These are model 700 rifles using an electronic firing mechanism which allows very light trigger pulls and effectively zero lock time (the time from when you pull the trigger to when the primer detonates). They were a commercial failure for Remington, because they use a battery and require special non-standard primers (although normal brass works fine). Those requirements made the target market skittish, along with the price. Still, the rifle is an interesting innovation, and as far as I can tell they work just great. This lot has one in .22-250 and one in .220 Swift, along with about 1100 rounds of loaded ammo and 7000 more of the electronic primers. Anticipated price point: half the price of a single new Etronx.
There are no fewer than 16 M1 Garand rifles in this upcoming auction, but two of them in particular jumped out at me. The first is a very early (serial number 20816) example of the gas trap system (Lot 1535). The Garand initially used a system where the muzzle blast was captured and redirected to push the operating piston (similar to the German G41(M) and G41(W)). This was quickly found to be unreliable, though, and the rifles were retrofitted with a gas port in the barrel bleeding gas directly to the oprod – a much better system. Very few of the early M1s escaped this overhaul, and so original gas trap examples are pretty rare today. This particular one was carried by a member of the Alaska National Guard, and also has the even more rare blast deflector used by a few units in the arctic. Sweet! Anticipated price point: small foreclosed house.
The other M1 that made me drool on my catalog was one of 5 selected for use in the 1949 rifle trials where the US and UK tried to come to an agreement on a new NATO rifle cartridge (Lot 3570). Five Garands were converted by the British to .280 in an attempt to convince US Ordnance officers that the .280 round would be effective in the US standard arms (M1, BAR, M1919A4). The attempt failed because US Ordnance (in typical fashion) was unwilling to use a cartridge less powerful than the .30-06. We’re only now coming back around to the practicality of an intermediate cartridge like the .280, and I think an M1 in this caliber would be an absolutely outstanding shooter. Conveniently for a potential purchased who would be willing to fire this rifle, the 1949 version of the .280 uses the same case head and rim dimensions as the .30-06, so making brass ought to be fairly simple. Anticipated price point: 55 pounds of pre-1965 quarters.
As cool as those M1s are, the prices do put them solidly out of my reach. So here’s something else very neat that we can close on with a price that makes it available to a lot more of us: a Japanese aerial training gun camera (Lot 618). Like the Hythe camera I wrote about a while back, this camera is styled loosely after the Lewis gun (which the Japanese used in aircraft for a long time). Unlike the Hythe, this one is a movie camera. The trainee winds up a drum of film, and holding down the “trigger” causes it to record footage until the trainee releases the trigger. This allows instructors to assess whether the trainee is using proper lead and burst durations. A very cool piece of equipment, this one comes cased with a bunch of accessories including brackets for both wing mounting and flexible ring mounting. Anticipated price point: professional modern handheld video camera.
If you haven’t yet, you should definitely check out the catalog for the December Premiere auction, whether to find that next piece to add to your collection or just to gawk at all the fantastic guns. And remember, Forgotten Weapons Premium Members get 50% off the cost of the glossy print catalogs that RIA publishes for these auctions!
The military breakthrough for Bergmann finally came in 1903 with a new locking system for the pistol, designed by Louis Schmeisser (who had also designed the previous Bergmann handguns). In 1901, Schmeisser developed the new lock, and it was patented by Bergmann (his employer) primarily for use on heavy machine guns. It was used in these (and Bergmann HMGs saw some use in WWI), but it was also scaled down for use in the 1903 pistol. The new system used a square block that encircled the bolt and could travel a few millimeters up and down. When the bolt was locked, this block would rise up so that its bottom surface was captive in the bolt and its top surface was locked against a block in the bolt carrier. This held the bolt and carrier locked together, so that upon firing they would recoil together. After a short travel, angled camming surfaces in the frame of the pistol would force the locking block downward, freeing it from both the bolt and bolt carrier. Once the gun was thus unlocked, the bolt could continue traveling rearward on its inertia to eject the empty case and load a new one. This system externally looks very similar to the C96 Broomhandle Mauser, but is mechanically reasonably different.
Mechanically, the system is identical to the 1910/21 version, so you can see here for disassembly:
This new locking system was more cost effective to manufacture and more reliable than the side-tilting bolt of the 1897 Bergmann, and it was also quite strong. Bergmann exploited this strength by introducing a new cartridge for the 1903 model – the 9mm Bergmann (clever name, eh?). Thanks to the Spanish, we know this round today as the 9mm Largo. It was a 9x23mm case, firing a 135 grain FMJ bullet at 1060-1115 fps (325-340 m/s) depending on the loading. This was the most powerful production pistol cartridge designed in continental Europe at the time, and had performance very similar to Browning’s .38 ACP.
With this improved system, Bergmann finally had a product that would be appealing to military buys – but he still had to undergo testing and trials and actually make a sale. The British tested a .455 caliber Bergmann-Mars in 1903, but rejected it for not having a heavy enough projectile (they were pretty picky).
Two Bergmann-Mars variant were sent to the US for testing. The first, in 1906, was chambered for a proprietary 11.35mm cartridge (probably the same one sent to the British, but I can’t confirm that). The ammunition sent with it was impounded by US customs upon arrival, and the gun could not be tested (bureaucracy never changes). A second model chambered for standard .45ACP was sent shortly thereafter (for the US 1907 pistol trials) with German-made ammo. Once again, the ammo was impounded on arrival. In this case, testing was able to continue Frankford Arsenal ammunition. Unfortunately, in the first firing test the hammer was unable to strike hard enough to detonate the Frankford primers, and the pistol was dropped from testing (the board report also records that they did not like the forward-magazine configuration). In retrospective fairness to Bergmann, and ammo used for the 1907 trials was pretty crummy stuff and caused problems for all of the competing pistols.
Bergmann’s first major break came in 1905 when a Spanish testing board officially recommended the 1903 for military purchase and use. On September 5th of that year Spain placed and order for 3,000 Model 1903 pistols, chambered for the 9x23mm cartridge. This brought along a new problem for Bergmann – how to actually make them. Since 1896, Bergmann pistol production had been subcontracted out to V.C Schilling in Suhl, and Bergmann’s own industrial works were not tooled up for pistol production. In 1904 Schilling was taken over by the Krieghoff company, which decided to end the factory’s relationship with Bergmann.
The cost of setting up a pistol production line is quite significant, and Bergmann knew that his previous pistols had never managed to bring really significant sales numbers. Being the intelligent businessman, he was hesitant to make the investment in tooling and jigs for the 1903 without having more than the relatively small Spanish order. His solution was to use the facilities he had already set up for making the various prototype 1903 pistols. This allowed some production, but not at a very fast pace. In addition to the Spanish order, this production had to include commercial sale guns and samples for other testing (like the US trials). Bergmann’s own plant produced less than a thousand model 1903 pistols in total, and only a small number of these were sent to Spain by 1908.
Presumably Bergmann spent the years between 1905 and 1908 looking for a new subcontractor to manufacture his pistols – someone with adequate firearms experience. By 1908 he had found such a firm – the longtime armsmaker: Societe Anonyme Anciens Establissments Pieper located in Herstal Belgium. AEP was willing to finish making the pistols for the Spanish order, and was also granted a license to manufacture and market the 1903 pistol commercially. They did this under the trade name “Bayard” – which is why these later Bergmanns are often called Bergmann-Bayard pistols. These Belgian-made examples have serial numbers starting at 1000.
Model 1908 Bergmann-Bayand made by AEP. Note knight logo on magazine well – this is indicative of commercial Belgian 1908 pistols.
By the time AEP was contracted to build these pistols, the Spanish military had spent several years with their first examples and had come up with some improvements they wanted to make to the design. These were mostly minor changes – larger mag catch, shortened safety lever throw, tweaks to the grip shape, etc. The two major changes were the addition of a disconnector (to prevent unintentional full-auto fire) and making the barrel and bolt carrier from a single piece of material instead of threading the barrel into the carrier as the original 1903 did. With these changes, the design was known as the Model 1908, and AEP completed the 3,000-gun Spanish order of these by the end of 1909. The 1908 model also incorporated a pin that would recock the hammer upon cycling, rather than having the bolt itself slam back into the hammer on each shot.
The recommendation of the 1903 Bergmann had roused the interest of Spanish army officer Venancio Lopez in automatic pistol design, and he began experimenting with his own design that year. By 1912 his pistol design had been perfected and successfully endured military trials. It was known as the Campo Giro, and was adopted as the official Spanish military pistol that year, ending Spanish interest in the Bergmann (although the existing Bergmanns would continue to see service with police units until 1939). Spanish 1903 and 1908 Bergmann pistols can be identified by the early Spanish military acceptance mark, a circle divided into equal thirds located atop the chamber and on the left side of the frame.
We will finish up this series on Bergman pistols Wednesday, with the Danish M1910…
1060-1115 fps (325-340m/s)
Vertically moving block
German-language manual for the M1908 Bergmann-Bayard:
We also have photos of a very early Bergmann-Mars, s/n 108. This was from the Schroeder collection, and included an original holster-stock (which was available commercially, but not purchased by the Spanish). This one was sold by James Julia Inc:
Bergmann-Mars with holster-stock attached
Top of slide – later production examples are marked “Bermann Mars”, where this one just says “Mars”
Commercial holst-stock offered by Bergmann
We also have photos of a later German 1903 from the September 2013 Rock Island Auction (the same pistol we have a video of, s/n 245 with a mismatched magazine):
Theodor Bergmann was tenacious in his pursuit of a military pistol contract, but the sales of the 1896 and 1897 model Bergmann pistols showed him that a single design could not effectively suit to both the military need for a powerful cartridge and the civilian demand for a small and concealable pistol. In order to pursue both parts of the market, Bergmann split his efforts, scaling down and simplifying the design into the civilian Simplex and beefing it up for the Bergmann-Mars military pistol.
In order to make the Simplex smaller and less expensive, the existing locking system was scrapped in favor of a simple blowback mechanism in conjunction with a new 8mm cartridge. This round was a straight-walled 18mm long case, firing a 71 grain bullet at 790 fps (240 m/s), making it just slightly less powerful than the .32ACP. Compared to the 8mm cartridge from the No.4 1896 Bergmann, the Simplex round is 4mm shorter. The Simplex will not shoot the longer early ammunition, but it seems likely that the No.4 pistols can fire the short Simplex cartridges.
At any rate, the first few Simplex pistols were manufactured by V.C. Schilling in Suhl, Germany (the same concern that manufactured earlier Bergmann pistols) but production quickly moved to Belgium. All reports from the time suggest that the low cost was made possible by the use of mediocre-quality materials and mediocre workmanship. This was a definite change for Bergmann, whose guns had previously all been of quite high quality. Despite this, the low price did attract buyers, and reportedly about 4,000 Simplex pistols were made. There are also reports of Spanish-made copies (thousands of them), although I have not been able to find any firsthand photos or descriptions of these copies. Ultimately, what killed sales of the Simplex was competition from the Browning/FN model 1899/1900 pistol, which set a high standard for pocket pistols of the day.
Unlike previous Bergmann designs (which ejected out the top), the Simplex had an ejection port on the right side of the frame, and did use an extractor. It had a fixed barrel (3.5 inches / 89mm long) and fixed sights, and a manual safety lever on the left side of the frame. Magazines were of a double-stack design, and held 5 rounds, although larger 8- and 10-round magazines were also made. As with the 1897 pistols, the magazines and frames had matching witness holes, so the shooter could see how many cartridges were left in the gun without removing the magazine. The standard 5-round magazine had 3 witness holes but the frames all appear to have been made with 4 holes, suggesting that extended magazines were planned from the beginning, and not an afterthought or third-party product.
Thanks to a recent auction by the James Julia company, we have photos of three Simplex pistols (click any photo to enlarge it). One is a very early production, one mid-production, and one late. Let’s start with the early example:
Note checkered wooden grips
The safety on the Simplex was well designed and easy to use.
Here is the mid-run pistol:
Rubberized grips with the “Simplex” logo quickly became standard.
And here is the late production Simplex:
Note the extended magazine, making use of the fourth witness hole in the frame.
One of the characteristics that often leads me to be particularly interested in a given gun is a long and convoluted history. I really enjoy finding firearms that have found their way across the world and back. One entire category of rifles that did just that were the hundreds of thousands of rifles made in the United States during WWI under contract for the British, French, Canadian, and Russian armies.
The Mosin Nagant is the most numerous example of this sort of rifle, but far from the only one. Literally millions of Model 1891 Mosin Nagants were made in the US by Westinghouse and Remington, and those rifles proceeded to find their way into countless conflicts over the past hundred years. They passed through that hands of Russian, Americans, Brits, Finns, Japanese, Chinese, Czechs, and many others. Now THAT is some cool history.
The details of these contracts and how the rifles were made has been lost for a long time, but Luke Mercaldo’s Allied Rifle Contracts in America has put that history right at our fingertips again. The details of how the contracts were awarded, how production facilities were found and adapted, how the rifles were inspected and accepted or rejected, how the US firms made or lost money, and where the rifles eventually went is all here, and not just for the Mosin Nagants. Mercaldo also covers the Belgian 1889 Mausers made by Hopkins & Allen, the Remington Rolling Blocks made for France, the Winchester 1895s made for Russia, the Remington Berthiers made for France, the Savage 1899 lever actions made for Canada, and the Pattern 1914 Enfields made for England.
This is a definite must-have book for anyone who collects these rifles, and its a pretty cool collecting niche. The work was published in 2011 and is still readily available…but this is also definitely one of those books that is unlikely to be reprinted once the first printing sells out. So if you want it, get it now:
This is going to be a short post, as the 1899 Bergmann is the most difficult variant to find information on. In fact, the 1899 designation is really a catch-all for the experimental pistols Bergmann tinkered with between the 1897 No.5 design and Schmeisser’s invention of a new locking block mechanism in 1901. According to Ed Buffaloe, this series of experimental guns eventually led to the Simplex pocket pistol, although it seems more likely that the Simplex was a separate line of thought and the 1899 was yet another attempt to garner military interest.
We do know that the British government expressed an interest in the Bergmann pistol in 1900, but they did not actually acquire and test any examples until 1902. Whether those test pistols (which were in 9mm, 10mm, and 11.35mm cartridges) were late iterations of the 1897/1899 or early versions of the 1903 Bergmann-Mars is unclear. The most likely story seems to be that the first two British pistols were side-locking 1897 designs in 9mm and 10mm, and they were rejected for using small projectiles (the British military was adamant about maintaining a .455 bore). The followup pistol sent for British trials was in 11.35x23mm, and was likely an early 1903 model with the new locking system.
The pistol was also tested by the Swiss in 1900, who seem to have taken a crack at anything that came out of the Bergmann factory. It once against came up short in their estimation, though (spoiler; Switzerland never did adopt a Bergmann pistol).
Bergmann 1899, s/n 2 (photo from a private European collection)
We will continue on Friday with a detailed look at the Bergmann Simplex…
Thanks to a Pakistani reader named Adi who happens to own a 44-Bore rifle (an AK with the chamber reamed to accept 8×33 Kurz cartridges), we have some a bit more information on this interesting variation of the AK. Adi reports that his rifle uses standard 7.62×39 AK magazines, and he can load 28 rounds into a magazine. He says that feed problems are fairly rare, and when they do occur are caused by the short 8×33 case having extra space to travel to the chamber, since the gun was designed around the longer 7.62×39 cartridge. Here are a few photos he sent:
AK mag loaded with 8x33K ammo
AK mag loaded with 8x33K ammo
Rear view showing cartridge as it would be stripped off by the bolt.
I was curious to try this out firsthand, so I dug out some various AK magazines and some 7.92x33K cartridges to see for myself:
Adi in Pakistan also sent a couple photos of some of his ammo:
Note the MEN headstamp and NATO cross. This was originally a 7.62×51 NATO case.
Typical example of Pakistani 8x33K cartridge
My understanding is that local 8×33 in Pakistan is made from a variety of cases, primarily 8×57 and 7.62mm NATO. Both are presumably fairly common in military use, and close enough in case head dimensions to reform into 8×33. This particular round began life as German 7.62×51, with a Berdan primer. Based on the ejector mark on the case head, I suspect the round was initially fired from an HK91, which is a fairly common military rifle in the area.
This past weekend was another 2-Gun Action Challenge Match, and this time I decided to shoot my Hakim in it. The Hakim is an Egyptian license-built copy of the Swedish AG-42 Ljungman (you can find more info on the Hakim and other Egyptian rifles here), chambered in the standard 8×57 Mauser cartridge. The Hakim has a 10-round detachable magazine, but was meant to be reloaded using stripper clips (and it has a pretty neat system for doing so). It’s a fairly long and hefty rifle (some might use the word “oar”), but I found it pretty nice to shoot. The match this month was all about 12-round strings of fire, so I did a lot of loading 7 rounds in the mag to start and then reloading with a 5-round clip. Have a look: