Russian Colt 1895 machine gun destroyed on the Eastern front, WWI.
Russian Colt 1895 machine gun destroyed on the Eastern front, WWI.
I had the chance to shoot a 20mm L39 Lahti antitank rifle (cannon?) at a recent get-together. It is the cheapest of the 20mm guns you can generally find, but also one of the less pleasant to actually shoot. In this case, the gas system was turned off to help preserve the brass, so I got to eat the full force of the recoil. Normally some of it is absorbed by the action cycling. Notice how it shoves me back on the skis – definitely not a casual fun plinker.
I did also have the chance to Shoot the S18/1000 Solothrun you can see in the video, which was a far nicer gun. I am curious how both of these compare to the Russian PTRS and PTRD rifles, as well as the Boys and Mauser T-Gewehr, and looking forward to finding an opportunity to try those out as well…
Things are still pretty hectic here, and I apologize for not having a new post. In lieu of that, I am going to repost a video from last year, on the Mexican Obregon variant of the 1911. It has the rather interesting design twist of changing from a tilting-barrel Browning type lock to a rotating barrel like a Steyr-Hahn. Thanks to a friendly collector, we got to take one apart and then do some shooting with it:
Full original post (and comments) here: Obregon Automatic Pistol (Video)
I was recently contacted by a fellow looking for information on the Japanese Type 1 heavy machine gun – a replacement for the Type 92 whose name would suggest it was adopted in 1941, but which never seems to have been put into mass production. This fellow was able to track down the only known surviving example at the US Army Ordnance Training and Heritage Center, where the staff was very helpfully willing to pull it out of storage and take some photos.
The main source of we know about this gun is an article in the June 1945 edition of the US Army Intelligence Bulletin, which is very helpfully reproduced on LoneSentry.com. Here is the text, along with a scan of the one photo in the article:
This article does not clearly mention that the Type 1 retains the same basic mechanical design as the Type 92, including its use of cartridge trays for feeding (presumably the exact same trays used by the Type92, for logistical simplicity). The Type 1 also was intended to be fitted with a 4x periscope-style optical sight.
Interestingly, the 1945 article mentions that the captured gun is serial number 1 – as is the gun we Ordnance center has. These are almost certainly the exact same gun. What we’re all wondering is, are there any others out there that survived the war? Nobody seems to know what the total production quantity was for this model, and any additional information would be much appreciated!
Here are the other photos provided of the known example:
I did find one other reference to the Type 1, in Ordnance Technical Intelligence Report Number 19 (a document printed by the Office of the Chief Ordnance Officer in Tokyo in January of 1946). This document has a bit more information, claiming that the need for a lighter replacement for the Type 92 was recognized as early as 1937. Initial trials of the new gun were first held in March of 1940, along with a new style of mount patterned after the German MG08 sled mount. These trials were unsatisfactory, with the mount being deemed not stable enough and the gun not operating reliably. A second set of trial was held in June of 1940 which were better, but still not ideal. These trials used a modified sled-type mount, and an improved version of the gun (including the use of spade grips in place of the original shoulder stock and pistol grip).
Apparently the Infantry School disliked the sled mount, and development along those lines was halted (until 1942, when a request from paratroop command restarted it, although with no known final product). The final trial model of the gun was fitted to a lightened version of the Type 92 mount, and this version was found acceptable and formally adopted in November of 1942. It was slated to go into mass production and replace all Type 92 guns in service, but a lack of material meant that the plan was never actually put into motion.
For those of you who don’t regularly visit GunLab, Chuck posted an update there yesterday that’s worth checking out. He has spilled the beans about deciding to manufacture a small run of reproduction Gerat 06 rifles. This was an intermediate design between the Gerat 03 (basically a roller-locked G43) and the StG-45 (the first roller-delayed blowback gun, which eventually evolved into the HK91).
The Gerat 06 is a stamped-receiver, gas-operated, roller locked rifle in 8x33K, using standard StG-44 magazines. They are a little bit heavy (no more so than the StG-44, though) and very, very comfortable to shoot. Only 4 were originally made during WWII. I have no idea what the price will end up being, when they will be finished, or how many will be available, but I will be happy to put your name on a list if you’d like to be contacted directly when they are.
For more information on the design, you can check out the video I did a while back: Last Ditch Innovation.
We have another new unique item from the September 2013 Rock Island Premier auction today – a prototype pistol made by Savage in .38ACP caliber.
Zouaves on maneuvers with M1886 Lebel rifles, in 1909.
Andrew Burgess has been the subject of a couple recent posts, and I figure it’s high time to actually take a close look at one of his firearms designs. Specifically, the folding shotgun. The first shotgun specifically designed to be a fighting weapon instead of a sporting arm, Burgess’ shotgun was patented in January of 1893 and first appeared on the market in 1894. It featured a 20″ barrel, 6-round tube magazine under the barrel, and unloaded weight of just over 6 pounds (2.7kg). This compact configuration was specifically intended for use by messengers, bank guards, police, cavalry troops, and others who could exploit the handiness of a compact shotgun. The size was complemented by the gun’s folding mechanism.
This folding was accomplished by putting a hinge just behind the end of the chamber. The top of the barrel and magazine assembly had four machined thread-like parallel grooves which fit into matching slots in the receiver assembly, similar to many other take-down shotgun designs. However, the pivoting pin at the bottom and the spring=loaded latch that Burgess added to the design allowed the gun to be carried in a folded state (with the magazine fully loaded) and snapped into a locked firing condition with a flip of the wrist. In fact, Burgess sold a belt holster for the shotgun to allow one to carry it under a coat in just that manner.
One of the more significant purchases for Burgess folding shotguns was secured with the aid of just such a holster. Burgess salesman Charlie Dammon – an impressive exhibition shooter – made an appointment with then New York City Police Board President Theodore Roosevelt in 1885, and arrived concealing a loaded Burgess in a holster under his coat. After exchanging a few greetings, Dammon thoroughly startled Roosevelt by whipping out the gun, snapping it shut, and blasting six blanks into the ceiling of the office. Roosevelt, always one to be enthusiastic about weapons technology, promptly order one hundred of the guns for use in the New York State Penal System (these were eventually sold at auction in Canada around 1920).
The other element that really makes the Burgess gun stand out from other pump shotguns (particularly today, when we have many more around than there were in the 1890s) is its unusual pump mechanism. Because Samuel Roper (partner of Christopher Spencer) had patented the now-ubiquitous slide wrapped around the magazine tube, Burgess had to find an alternative. What he did was to make the grip and trigger guard into the slide assembly. A sleeve wrapped around the wrist of the stock, and the shooter would pull this back to open the action and then push it back into place to load a new shell. Burgess had tried to challenge Roper’s patent in court, but failed (where Winchester would later succeed through a technicality, allowing them to use the now-standard slide mechanism in their 1893 and 1897 models).
These shotguns were manufactured and sold from 1894 until 1899 by the Burgess Gun Company in Buffalo, New York. During this time Burgess made both folding shotguns and a non-folding takedown sporting version of the gun with 28″ and 30″ barrels. In addition, a very small number of pump-action rifles using the same mechanism (although not folding) were made in .30-30 and .45-70 calibers. The shotguns are fairly rare today, with folding models particularly hard to find – and the rifles are extremely scarce. In 1899, Burgess decided to retire, and sold his company and factory to the Winchester company. They promptly repurposed what tooling and machinery they could, scrapped the rest, and shut down the factory.
The Burgess shotgun is little-known today, with its more commercially successful contemporary Winchester 1897 competitor being far more common. However, the Burgess really was one of the first of the truly combat-oriented shotguns. In addition to being concealable and compact, it was capable of very rapid fire. Burgess’ exhibition shooters would regularly perform feats such as breaking six clays thrown simultaneously, or firing rapidly enough to have all six empty hulls in the air simultaneously – feats which were simply not practical with the Spencer pump shotguns or the Winchester 1893. Even today, it remains a practical fighting shotgun (to the extent surviving examples can be found). Perhaps someone will decide to start manufacturing reproductions so we can all enjoy shooting them?
Caliber: 12ga (.30-30 and .45-70 in very rare rifle examples)
US Patent 521,202 (A. Burgess, “Folding Gun”, June 12, 1894)
US Patent 524,800 (A. Burgess, “Folding Magazine Gun”, August 21, 1894)
Swearengen, Thomas F. The Worlds Fighting Shotguns Chesa Ltf, Hong Kong, 1978.
Flayderman, Norm. Flayderman’s Guide to Antique American Firearms and Their Values Follett Publishing Co, Chicago, 1977.
While doing some research on the experimental Spencer-Lee rifle design, I came across an article on shoulder rifle technology written by Col. George Fosbery in 1884 for the Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. Fosbery, of course, is an arms designer of some note (being responsible for the Webley-Fosbery automatic revolver as well as the Paradox gun and more) as well as a decorated (with nothing short of the Victoria Cross) fighting soldier. This would suggest that he would be a pretty astute judge of small arms developments. However, even the best and brightest can’t always predict the future. Take, for example, Fosbery’s commentary on box magazines and electrically-primer cartridges…
Fosbery’s objections here are largely reasonable – magazines take more space than loose cartridges, they are expensive, fragile, and require specialized storage on a soldier’s person. What Fosbery did not envision were the solutions and workarounds to these problems – making magazines either more study or disposable, making them with cheap stamping technology, and issuing ammunition in clips with which soldiers would fill their own magazines (among other solutions).
A few pages later, he brings up a novel and promising new technology…
Many people have opined on the promise of electrically-primed cartridges, and the advantages Fosbery lists are again all legitimate. The firing mechanisms for electric cartridges are mechanically much simpler, and would free up space and weight in a firearm. They would be an ideal solution to the problem of pointed bullets in tubular magazines, which was relatively common in this period. Such cartridges have seen limited use (E-tronx, Voere, some 20mm Vulcan guns, among others), but never become accepted in the mainstream.
Now, I don’t want to suggest that Fosbery was anything but brilliant. In fact, I hope to make the opposite point – even the most brilliant cannot be counted upon to accurately predict what trends will or will not become common and popular. When we see new innovations today like TrackingPoint computerized optics or 3D-printed components, we should carefully judge the arguments for and against their practicality, and always remember that sometimes great ideas die on the vine and sometimes objectionable ones are adopted over those objections.
Anyone interested can download the complete Journal through Google Books: Journal #27 of the Royal United Service Institution
by Robert White
With 894 patents, Andrew Burgess is one of the most prolific firearm inventors the world has ever known (second only to John Browning in number of firearms patents issued to an American), and a man of varied talents beyond firearms design.
Burgess was born January 16, 1837 in Dresden, NY to John Christian Burgess and Achsah Christie (Davis) Burgess, and was the grandson of a a Hessian deserter from the American Revolution. He was a skilled photographer whose family-owned farm bordered the homestead of Civil War photographer Mathew Brady. Burgess ended up apprenticed to Brady and photographically documented Reconstruction in the post-Civil War South, as well as documenting the execution of the French-installed Emperor Ferdinand Maximilian in Mexico. Andrew Burgess is now credited to have taken the famous “Brady’s Lincoln” photograph that is found on the American five dollar bill.
Later, Burgess photographed the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) before returning to the United States in 1871. It is speculated that during his stint as a photographer during the Franco-Prussian War he developed an interest in firearm design. His first patent was granted Sept. 19, 1871, for converting the Peabody and Werndl arms to magazine rifles.
When Brady fell on hard times in 1874, Burgess purchased the studio, but sold it back by 1876. Some of the photos credited to him:
During the 19th century Colt was known for their revolvers and Winchester was known for their lever action rifles. However in 1883 an improved model of lever action rifle was presented to Colt by Andrew Burgess. Burgess had created a lever action rifle similar to the Winchester Model 1873 but had several improvements that made it more accurate, reliable and tougher.
Winchester was not happy about having competition from Colt. Shortly after production began representatives from Winchester met with representatives from Colt. From there the Winchester reps presented a number of pistol prototypes (Mason revolvers) they intended to manufacture. An agreement was made that if Colt stayed out of rifles Winchester would stay out of pistols. Production of the Colt-Burgess Rifle ended after only 16 months of production. When production ceased the total output of Colt-Burgess rifles and carbines was a mere 6,403 units, all in .44-40 caliber, with some 340 of these being shipped to the London agency.
Andrew Burgess partnered with Eli Whitney with his design for a lever action repeating magazine rifle chambered in the .45-70 Government cartridge. It was hoped that this gun would be accepted in the military trials of 1878 to adopt a repeating rifle. Although not successful, Whitney continued production in sporting and military versions.
In 1881, the Marlin Firearms Company introduced the Model 1881 lever-action tubular magazine repeating rifle. The key features patented by Andrew Burgess. This rifle was available in a variety of calibers ranging from .32-40 to 45-70 Government.
Burgess established his own company in 1892. The Burgess Gun Company manufactured slide action shotguns and rifles operated by a unique pistol grip prior to their being purchased by Winchester repeating Arms Company in 1899. Winchester commonly bought out competing firms and then closed them.
One notable firearm resulting from the 100′s and 100’s of patents was the Burgess Folding Gun, designed for police service, express messengers, prisons and banks. It was made from 1892 to 1899. Nearly semi-automatic in operation, the Folding Gun had a sliding pistol grip assembly that moved backward under recoil and could be quickly shoved forward again by the shooter. While able to fire its six shots in less than three seconds, most users appreciated its attribute of compact storage in two hinged-together sections. These two components could be quickly rejoined, allowing the Folding Gun to be carried under a coat in a belt holster and drawn much like an oversized handgun.
While primarily manufactured as a shotgun, a few were also made in rifle calibers. The Burgess Folding Gun was a popular choice for law enforcement agencies seeking a compact arm. One prime reason for ready police acceptance may have been its consistent three-foot pattern with buckshot at 40 yards.
According to Mark Lee Garner in “To Hell on a Fast Horse”, Pat Garrett was armed with a Burgess when he was killed on Feb. 29, 1908.
While he had gained renown as an arms inventor, Burgess was also remembered for his unique style of conducting his research and, during later years, would frequently go to St. Augustine, Fla., where he had set up a floating workshop adjacent to a beachside bungalow. When stress onshore became too great, the solitary Burgess would pull up anchor to float away on the currents, playing his favorite violin and periodically firing a
His last patent was granted in 1906 and he died from heart failure on December 19, 1908 at the age of 71.
The Burgess Long Range Repeating Rifle Model 1878, by Dale A. Olson
Lever Action Magazine Rifles, Derived from the Patents of Andrew Burgess, by Samuel L. Maxwell