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The Vault

FAMAS F1

The FAMAS was one of the first mass-produced bullpup rifles, and as a forerunner in the area, it shows a number of interesting features, both good and bad.

FAMAS F1 rifle

FAMAS F1 rifle

The FAMAS spent 9 years in development, beginning in the late 1960s and finally being adopted as the standard French Army service rifle in 1978 (replacing the MAT-49 SMG and the MAS 49/56 rifle). During this time, prototypes and 7 progressive variants were made (A1-A7) before finally settling on the F1 model for adoption.

Mechanically, the FAMAS works much like a San Cristobal carbine or AA-52 machine gun, using the lever-delayed blowback system developed originally by Pál Király. The bolt is not rigidly locked when fired, and immediately begins to move backwards. An “H” shaped accelerator lever is connected in the center to the bolt itself, with the bottom legs firmly against recesses in the receiver below, and the upper legs pushing on the bolt carrier. The accelerator cannot move back past the receiver lugs until it has rotated about 45 degrees, and its upper legs are longer than the lower ones. This forces the bolt carrier to move backwards much farther and fasted then the bolt itself can move. The time required for the bolt carrier to move far enough to release the accelerator lever and allow the bolt to move backwards is long enough to allow pressure to drop to a safe level in the chamber, and the built up momentum of the bolt carrier is used to cycle the action and load a new cartridge. A fluted chamber is used to facilitate extraction.

FAMAS Mechanism

Two stages of the FAMAS mechanism firing – note the difference in movement distance between the boltface and the carrier above it.

FAMAS bolt sequence

FAMAS bolt sequence – fully closed at top and fully open at bottom

This system is fairly simple and negates the need for a gas system, but it does have limitations. It is really at the limits of a safe mechanism for a high-pressure cartridge like the 5.56x45mm, and does not have much tolerance for variation in chamber and barrel pressure. The initial F1 variant of the rifle adopted by the French Army was designed around the 55gr M193 cartridge, including a 1:12″ twist that is not compatible with the now-popular heavier 62gr and 77gr bullets. We have also been told (although not found confirmation) that the locking system itself is not overly reliable with heavy bullets, due to the difference pressure curve created by those rounds. The newer G2 and export versions of the rifle are built to run fine with heavier rounds (mainly SS109 62 grain), but the vast majority of Army rifles in use are still original F1 versions, which will eventually be replaced with a completely different rifle (the H&K 416, we understand) rather than reworking them for the new standards.

In addition, France had removed its military forces from the NATO union in the late 1960s, and the FAMAS was not designed around NATO standards, although it did use the same ammunition. Magazines were straight 25-rounders, not interchangeable with STANAG M16 mags (although this was also changed in the 1990s G2 version).

Unlike many other bullpup rifles, the FAMAS was not built with optics mounting in mind – it is equipped with iron sights inside the top of its carry handle. These are enough to get the job done, but not particularly outstanding. It is worth noting, though, that both the front and rear sights are actually mounted to the barrel and receiver, and the carry handle mounts around them. This does improve accuracy, as slop in the carry handle mounting will not translate into movement of the sights.

FAMAS F1 receiver stripped

The vertical tower is the rear sight, with the carry handle removed

The fire selection leaves something be desired. The rifle has a safety lever inside the trigger guard, which rotated from left to right. The right (marked “1″) is for semiauto fire, the middle position (which physically blocks access to the trigger) is for safe, and the left (marked “R” for “refale”, or burst) is for automatic fire. That automatic fire can be either full-auto or a 3-round burst, as dictated by a second selector located under the buttstock. That one has markings of “0″ (for unlimited full auto) and “3″ for 3-round burst. Today burst firing has pretty much been determined to be undesirable, but it was still though to be a neat idea when the FAMAS was being designed.

FAMAS burst selector

Burst selector underneath the stock – “0″ for full auto and “3″ for a limited burst

Most notable for an early-adoption bullpup, the FAMAS can be fairly easily changed from left-handed to right-handed use. The charging handle is entirely ambidextrous, located atop the receiver inside the carry handle. The bolt is made with cutouts for the extractor to mount on either the left or right side, and the receiver has ejection posts in both sides. The desired ejection port is left open and a detachable cheekpiece is mounted over the other one, and the extractor is fitted to the ejection side of the bolt. To switch the rifle’s ejection side, the extractor and cheekpiece are simply moved to the opposite sides. This is not practical to do in combat, so the rifle can’t effectively be juggled from shoulder to shoulder, but it does allow lefty shooters to use the rifle without handicap (and without needing to have any lefty-specific guns or parts).

FAMAS F1 bolt face

FAMAS bolt face (this one has been demilled by welding over the firing pin hole). Note the two extractor mounting positions.

One other feature to note – the lever in front of the charging handle is actually a grenade launching sight. The FAMAS was designed to use 22mm rifle grenades that slip over the barrel. To aim them, the rifle is laid on its side, and that lever is flipped out to a detent setting based on the desired range of the grenade. The firer then sights down along that lever at the intended target.

FAMAS F1 grenade launching sight

FAMAS F1 grenade launching sight

 

FAMAS grenade sight

Manual illustration of the grenade launcher sight for indirect fire

Manuals

We have two manuals available for the FAMAS, one in French and one in English (both describing the original F1 variant):

FAMAS F1 manual (English)

FAMAS F1 manual (French)

Photos

You can also see the full gallery of photos (or download the whole batch here as a zip archive):

9 comments to FAMAS F1

  • Brody

    The french may be innovative, but their designs rarely turn out positively.

  • I am french. As a former officer, I agree with you. And the price ! Jean-Louis

    • Paul Linfor

      Though I heard that they fixed most of the problems present on the F1 on the new FAMAS G2 rifle. I’ve also heard that it has been adopted as the mainstay rifle for the French Navy & French Marines though the French Army is still holding onto their F1′s for reasons I don’t know. I might venture to guess that cost might be a factor. Plus I always wondered why DuGalle got all pissy with NATO.

  • Brody

    I haven’t been able to find if this gun is hammer or striker fired. I would like comfirmation on this point.

  • joel

    Why was De Gaulle “Pissy” please put yourself in His shoes , it goes back to WW2 while forming free France movement,the US send via a submarine in the mediteranee sea a secret “they thought ” diplomatic and military mission to negotiate with Vichy and the Nazy …that dis not fly very well , later when Nato was created it was nothing but an extention of the US , De Gaulle wanted none of it and got France to develop, the nuclear bomb and the missile to deliver it just about anywhere , including the soviet union , it paid out . sadly the program was basically dismantled by the socialistes …..

  • DonM

    Degaulle also wanted the US to use a nuclear bomb at Dien Bien Phu, wiping out the Viet Minh that had concentrated there (and the Foreign Legion defenders too, but hey, its the Foreign Legion! They don’t vote!) The US declined to do so in support of Vichy French colonialists demanding back payments for the time that the Japanese were in occupation, rather supporting Ho Chi Minh, who had been a US ally in WWII, and who had helped recover US pilots.

    The Viet Minh 105mm artillery at Dien Bien Phu was of US make, and had been transported from Korea, where it had been captured during the Korean war.

  • David

    Does the famas have a fluted chamber, i cant seem to find information on this and the two manuals contradict themselves (the french saying it has a “fluted chamber” an the english a “rifled barrel”)? The famas apparently has several issues regarding the extraction of brass cases forcing the french army to used steel cased cartriges with a bullet inadapded for the twist of the rifling, which causes a severe degradation in accuracy as well as supply complications. The extraction problems seem to be caused by the extremely high rate of fire and a violent extraction cycle (this last one, common to unfluted delayed-blowback designs). I wanted to know if it is solely due to the high rpm or if it can be improved on by fluting the chamber. if you had a stock photo it would great ^^. thanks in advance.

  • Dylan Vieth

    Anyone know where I can get a Famas receiver and barrel? Just found a kit for sale

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